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The Use of Water Power to Drive Mills Was Supplemented by Steam Driven Water Pumps
Firstly, the use of water power to drive mills was supplemented by steam driven water pumps, and then superseded completely by the steam engines.
For example, Samuel Greg joined his uncle's firm of textile merchants, and, on taking over the company in 1782, he sought out a site to establish a mill.
Quarry was built on the River Bollin at Styal in Cheshire.
 It was initially powered by a water wheel, but installed steam engines in 1810.
Quarry Bank Mill in Cheshire still exists as a well preserved museum, having been in use from its construction in 1784 until 1959.
It also illustrates how the mill owners exploited child labor, taking orphans from nearby Manchester to work the cotton.
 It shows that these children were housed, clothed, fed and provided with some education.
In 1830, the average power of a mill engine was 48 hp, but Quarry Bank mill installed a new 100 hp water wheel. 
William Fairbairn addressed the problem of line-shafting and was responsible for improving the efficiency of the mill.
 In 1815 he replaced the wooden turning shafts that drove the machines at 50rpm, to wrought iron shafting working at 250 rpm, these were a third of the weight of the previous ones and absorbed less power.
The variety of synthetic fibres used in manufacturing fibre grew steadily throughout the 20th century.
In the 1920s,the computer was invented; in the 1940s, acetate, modacrylic, metal fibres, and saran were developed; acrylic,polyester, and spandex were introduced in the 1950s.
Polyester became hugely popular in the apparel market, and by the late 1970s, more polyester was sold in the United States than cotton.
In 2002, textiles and apparel manufacturing accounted for $400 billion in global exports, representing 6% of world trade and 8% of world trade in manufactured goods. 
In the early years of the 21st century, the largest importing and exporting countries were developed countries, including the European Union, the United States, Canada and Japan. 
The countries with the largest share of their exports being textiles and apparel were as follows (2002)
·         Bangladesh: 85.9%
·         Macau: 84.4%
·         Cambodia: 72.5%
·         Pakistan: 72.1%
·         El Salvador: 60.2%
·         Mauritius: 56.6%
·         Sri Lanka: 54.3%
·         Dominican Republic: 50.9%
·         Nepal: 48.7%
·         Tunisia: 42.4%

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